Hereunder follows the transcription of chapter 5 of Frank H. Hankins'
The racial basis of civilization
revised edition, published by A. A. Knopf, New York & London 1931.


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PART I — A CRITICAL HISTORY

I INTRODUCTION 3
II ARYANISM 14
III GOBINISM 33
IV TEUTONISM 51

V ANTHROPO-SOCIOLOGY OR SOCIAL SELECTIONISM 101
VI CELTICISM AND GALLICISM 141
VII ANGLO-SAXONISM AND NORDICISM IN AMERICA 159

PART II — CONCEPT AND SOCIAL ROLE OF RACE

I INTRODUCTION 257
II CONCEPT OF RACE 262
III ARE THERE PURE RACES? 271
IV ARE RACE AND NATION IDENTIFIABLE? 275
V POLITICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF RACE 287
VI ARE RACES EQUAL? 291
VII THE PROBLEM OF RACE MIXTURE 328
VIII ARE RACIAL CHARACTERISTICS UNCHANGING? 352
IX CHANGES IN THE HEREDITARY CONSTITUTION OF A POPULATION 361
X RACE AND CULTURAL OPPORTUNITY 367
XI CONCLUSION 372

INDEX 377

101


CHAPTER V

ANTHROPO-SOCIOLOGY OR SOCIAL SELECTIONISM

THERE is a tendency for every science to move from a stage of vague ideology, through a stage of general observation to a stage of quantitative expression. If the members of the Gobineau Vereinigung in Germany gave his doctrines an appearance of verisimilitude by a vast assemblage of pertinent philological, archaeological and anthropological observations, the statistical test, to be sure in a sufficiently crude fashion, was applied by a closely related school of thought which arose during the last decade of the nineteenth century under the name of “Anthropo-Sociology“ or “Social Selectionism.“ They evidently began their researches with little predilection for Gobinism. G. Vacher de Lapouge, who was their principal representative in France, appears not to have read the Essay on the Inequality of Races until 1894 or some years after many of his characteristic ideas had been published. ¹ He was, however, familiar with many of Gobineau‘s ideas inherited, as he says, through Broca. ² The school came to see in Gobineau, in any case, their forerunner, “leur homme de génie,“ the great organizer of their system of thought. ³ Nevertheless, they represent a new phase of racial determinism. If they strengthened, at least in Germany, the doctrine of special blond dolicephalic superiority, they weakened that doctrine from the impartial view-

    1 Otto Ammon, Histoire d‘une idée. L‘Anthroposociologie, trans. by H. Muffang, Paris, 1898, p. 6.
    2 Race et milieu social. Essais d‘anthroposociologie, Paris, 1909, “Introduction,“ p. xxv.
    3 See Muffang in l‘Année sociologique, vol. 1, 1896-7, p. 521, and Lapouge, op. cit., p. 175.

102 ANTHROPO-SOCIOLOGY OR SOCIAL SELECTIONISM



point, and opened up quite an array of extremely interesting social investigations.
    They are characterized by efforts to apply the fundamental doctrines of Darwinism, as then conceived, to the problems of population and social life, and especially by efforts to elucidate the detailed operation of heredity and selection as factors in the social processes. Thus Lapouge in opening his last important work in this field, Race et milieu social, defined Anthropo-Sociology as the science “which has as its object the study of the reciprocal action of race and environment.“
    Broca (“Les selections,“ Revue d‘anthropologie, 1872, pp. 683-710) had used the term “social selection“ to indicate that in the social group the processes of natural selection are supplemented or displaced by social standards of value and success. Natural selection “develops the traits useful to the individual as a member of a species“; social election “develops the traits useful to an individual as a member of a society.“ Jacoby 4 had pointed out the selective action exerted by the growth of cities. All members of this school were not in agreement on the question, whether natural selection has ceased to operate on man, nor as to whether social selection was a part of natural selection, but were agreed that in civilized society natural selection was greatly supplemented, if not overcome, by selective processes set up by the social milieu. The scope given to these processes was most completely defined in the writings of Lapouge 5 who saw all history and the essential processes of social life in terms of struggle for existence, elimination and survival, heredity and race substitution. The drama of history was resolved into a conflict of anthropological elements. Selection was seen to operate not only through war, but through various political, legal, economic, moral and religious institutions, whereby now this racial trait and now that was given some survival advantage. In these respects his views were

    4 Études sur la sélection dans ses rapport avec l‘hérédité, Paris, 1881, pp. 294 and 395.
    5 Les sélections sociales, Paris, 1896, and L‘Aryen, son rôle social, Paris, 1899.

103 ANTHROPO-SOCIOLOGY OR SOCIAL SELECTIONISM



characteristic of the entire school, as they are to-day of the more extreme eugenists.
    But it must not be supposed that the operation of social selection was viewed by the anthropo-sociologists as always beneficent, or race improving. For while natural selection strengthened and perfected racial type, social selection, operating through differential rates of fertility, too often assured the triumphs of the mediocre and eliminated the superior, les eugéniques. Lapouge used the term “internal selection“ to designate the varying success with which individuals and families meet the social conditions essential to generating and rearing posterity; and the term “interstitial selection“ to designate the invasion of the group by alien elements which meet with success, propagate their kind, and thus modify the hereditary traits of the population. Thus, from a study of seventeenth and eighteenth century skulls in a cemetery at Montpellier he found that those from tombs of the upper class had an average cephalic index of 74.8, while those from the common cemetery had an average of 78.3. This indicated the superior success in internal competition of the narrow-skulled people. Such triumph was viewed as indubitable proof of hereditary superiority and as an indication of the operation in social life of at least a rough sort of natural justice whereby the more able and energetic are enabled to win the prizes of life. Later he found constant evidence of “interstitial selection“ in the increasing brachycephalization of the French, and indeed of all the west European populations, explained by the gradual invasion and greater survival power of the round-headed brunet. He thus saw in history a constant process of race substitution. “The proportion of races in a population varies without cessation.“ 6 He saw in Western Europe the continued sterilization of the successful long-headed classes and thus reached a pessimism regarding the future comparable to that of Gobineau. Thus the final outcome of the processes of social selection were viewed as ominously destructive of those racial qualities which create and maintain a

    6 “La race chez les populations mélanges,“ Scientific Papers of the Second International Congress of Eugenics, Baltimore, 1922, vol. 2, p. 5.

104 ANTHROPO-SOCIOLOGY OR SOCIAL SELECTIONISM



progressive civilization. Such views were common to the entire school of social selectionists and this pessimistic outlook is still often reiterated.
    The continental school of social selectionists were thus interested primarily in the operation of biological principles within the body politic. They made a vast number of concrete measurements, mostly of the cephalic index. They were less inspired by poetical romanticism than Chamberlain and many of his confrères, though they had their own points of psychic fixation leading them to exaggeration and self-delusion. The bearing of their doctrines on nationalist ambitions was singularly like that of Gobineau‘s in that their chief French representative was more eagerly listened to in Germany than in his own country. In fact, Lapouge 7 scornfully remarks that it is only the caricaturists of anthropo-sociology, such as Chamberlain and Finot, who think it is the theory of the superiority of the Aryan race, “de la race demi-divine aux yeux de ciel et aux cheveux de lumière.“ Nevertheless, both Lapouge and Ammon, the founders and chief exponents of the school, spoke constantly of the Aryan race as superior and frequently implied or openly asserted the correspondence of their Aryan with the tall, long-headed blond. We shall see that their data were scarcely capable of such interpretation, but this did not prevent their interpretation in such manner as to strengthen the belief in blond superiority. Lapouge 8 complains that “Chamberlain et d‘autres littérateurs politiques“ have constructed false theories out of the exact data of anthropo-sociology which have become the basis of German imperialism. Nevertheless, Chamberlain makes no reference to Ammon and only one to Lapouge, and that has to do with his classification of the European races, although these men were at the height of their fame when the Foundations was written. It was through Woltmann‘s Revue, which received numerous contributions from Lapouge, that the latter made his impression on the Gobineau Vereinigung.
    In many respects the work of Francis Galton makes him an English representative of this school. Ammon relied on him for

    7 Race et milieu social, pp. vii-viii.
    8 Op. Cit., p. xxi.

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both statistical and biological principles, but his work is so free from any characteristic racial and nationalistic biases that it stands somewhat apart. Founder of biometry and eugenics, he was from the first primarily interested in the differences of individuals within racial and social groups rather than in the hierarchy of races. Thus, instead of explaining the decline of Spain after the manner of the Gobineau school as due to the dying out of the blond Gothic strains, he emphasized the dysgenic selective action of religious intolerance and persecution in destroying the creative and originative minds arising within the Spanish population. Galton was as much a devotee of selectionism and heredity as Ammon and Lapouge, and was, indeed, the predecessor and mentor of both; and in his work and that of his successor, Karl Pearson, we have the outstanding representatives of these doctrines in the English-speaking world. But neither of these writers contributed to the doctrine fundamentally characteristic of Aryanism in its various forms, that there is a definite rank of inferiority and superiority of racial types within the European peoples. Pearson has strongly asserted the general superiority of white over primitive races, 9 and Galton endeavored to state the quantitative superiority of classical Greeks over modern Europeans and of whites over negroes. 10 Neither of these inquiries, however, had any relation to the special doctrines of dolicho-blond supremacy whose history we are sketching. Galton was, however, responsible for inspiring Lapouge to emphasize the possibilities of positive eugenics through selective mating and the purposeful elimination of the unfit, possibilities which the latter‘s vivid imagination and energetic spirit led him to sketch in the most fantastic fashion. Moreover, Lapouge and Ammon, like the English-speaking eugenists, were alarmed lest the growth of public assistance and other forms of social solidarity in checking the beneficent operation of natural selection in eliminating the less capable members of society should exert a deleterious influence on the future physical and mental powers of man.
    By all odds the most conspicuous representative of this school

    9 See his National Life from the Standpoint of Science, London, 1902.
    10 Hereditary Genius, London, 1869.

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was G. Vacher de Lapouge who began his literary career by a series of articles in the Revue d‘Anthropologie for 1887 and 1888 in which, in the manner of Woltmann nearly twenty years later, he claimed that (1) the periods of greatest activity and progress in France had followed fresh infusions of Teutonic blood — Norman, Frankish, Gothic; and (2) that the superior individuals belonged to the tall blond stock or were hybrids closely approaching it. 11 At this time he also advanced the theory that the declining birth-rate in France was due to the low fecundity of hybrids. 12 In 1889 he began a series of measurements of crania of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries with comparisons with modern crania and between noblemen and peasants. He was able to show an increase in the cephalic index with the passage of time and the greater dolichocephaly of the upper class. 13 While at first he shared the doctrine of Gobineau, which he inherited from Broca, that the social superiority of the Teutonic types in France was due to conquest, he became convinced that race substitution and social stratification were the current results of a perpetual conflict of anthropological types carried on within the structure of the established social order. 14 His data and theories were expanded in Les sélections sociales.15 Three years later appeared his l‘Aryen, son rôle social, 16 a work which in some respects represents the apex of blond-dolichocephalic Aryanism in France. 17

    11 “Les Sélections Sociales,“ 1887, pp. 519-50, and “De l‘inégalité parmi les hommes,“ 1888, pp. 9-38, especially p. 17.
    12 La dépopulation de la France, 1887, pp. 69-80.
    13 Results published in Revue d‘anthropologie for 1889, and l‘Anthropologie for 1891, 1892 and 1893. For a comparison of early German, Reihengraber skulls and modern heads by Ammon showing the increasing brachycephalization see his Natürliche Auslese, p. 67.
    14 See Race et milieu social, pp. xxv-xxvii, and 293.
    15 Paris, 1896.
    16 Paris, 1899.
    17 For an available summary of Lapouge see articles by C. C. Closson, especially “Social Selection,“ Journal of Political Economy, vol. 4, 1896, pp. 449-6; also, “Recent Progress in Social Anthropology,“ ibid., pp. 410-12. See also his “Ethnic Stratification and Displacement,“ Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 11, 1896, pp. 92-104; and “The Hierarchy of European Races,“ American Journal of Sociology, vol. 3, 1897, pp. 314-27.

107 ANTHROPO-SOCIOLOGY OR SOCIAL SELECTIONISM



    His classification of the principal European races is of considerable interest. It was similar to the classifications coming into current use in the writings of Beddoe, Broca, Livi, Topinard and afterwards adopted by Ripley, with some change of name, thenceforth to become the generally accepted classification. Likewise his characterization of these types has been widely accepted. Ripley 18 cautiously accepts it as probable, while Madison Grant and his school have faithfully and whole-heartedly repeated it in almost school-boy fashion. He found as many as ten distinctive types in the European population of which three were of pre-eminent historical import — Homo europaeus, Homo alpinus and Homo meridionalis or mediterranaeus. The Homo europaeus was described 19 as the tall, blond, long-faced, dolichocephalic stock which originated in the North Sea basin, probably in consequence of climatic selection, and spread all over Europe, North Africa, into Persia, India and even China, and now dwells in greatest purity in the British Isles, Northwest Europe, America and Australia. This race is synonymous with the legendary Aryas. It is psychologically extremely variable, but in its better types, which are most characteristic, it is domineering, self-reliant, enterprising, ambitious and courageous. This race has great needs but possesses energy corresponding thereto. It is adventurous and filled with an urge for progress. It excels in the creation and the preservation of wealth; it is gifted with great foresight and capacity to take into account distant places and events. In religion it is Protestant; in politics it loves liberty and individual independence of action.
    Sharply contrasted is Homo alpinus. This type is shorter in stature, medium to dark in skin-, eye-, and hair-color, and has round head and round face. It is typified by the Turk and the Auvergnat, predominates in France, Switzerland, North Italy, Southern Germany, Poland, Austria, the Balkans, and farther east. Though it has become a fixed type through in-breeding and selection, it was originally a hybrid. Psychologically it is frugal, cautious and industrious; gifted with common sense (le bon sens), and

    18 The Races of Europe, Chap. VI, pp. 103-30; also pp. 457-75.
    19 Les sélections sociales, pp. 27 et seq.; L‘Aryen, p. 370.

108 ANTHROPO-SOCIOLOGY OR SOCIAL SELECTIONISM



attached to tradition. It absorbs rather than creates ideas; though industrious, it works slowly and without intensity. While the Homo europaeus has the aggressive solidarity of the hunting pack where each seeks to be first in attacking the prey, relying on his comrades for aid, Homo alpinus knows only the timid defensive solidarity of the flock of sheep where each seeks to hide himself behind his neighbor. 20 The Alpine has for generations been “the perfect slave, the ideal serf, the model subject, and, in republics such as ours, the citizen most highly praised because he tolerates every abuse.“ 21 It varies little and hence produces few geniuses. It is Catholic in religion, dependent on state action in politics, opposed to individual excellence and superiority, worships mediocrity, and is fearful of progress. Its foresight does not extend beyond the immediate needs of self and family, while problems of statecraft are beyond its powers. It was Homo europaeus which accounted for the civilizations of the Greeks, Romans, and Western Europe. It has for many centuries been the dominating race, and even to-day, when pure types are very rare because of the mixture of blond and brunet, those individuals who play the most important rôles in society greatly resemble the master race of other days. 22
    Lapouge also distinguished Homo mediterranaeus, the dark dolichocephal, exemplified in the Neapolitan and the Andalusian, but gave it less precise psychic characterization, because it comprised varied types. He added that the hierarchy of races corresponded to the order established by Gobineau.
    Lapouge‘s Aryanism is the logical culmination of his theories of social selection. His own observations together with those of his fellow countrymen, Durand de Gros, Collignon and Muffang,

    20 For a repetition of this comparison as between Germany and England respectively, but with England made the socialized bee rather that the gregarious sheep, while Germany is made the wolf in man‘s attire, see Wm. Trotter, Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War, New York, 1917, p 201.
    21 L‘Aryen, p. 233.
    22 Topinard gave a briefer but in many respects similar psychological characterization of these two types in L‘Anthropologie et la science sociale, Paris, 1900, pp. 547-8.

109 ANTHROPO-SOCIOLOGY OR SOCIAL SELECTIONISM



the indefatigable labors of Ammon in Germany, and the researches of Chalumeau in Switzerland, of Weisbach in Austria and numerous others elsewhere had accumulated a great quantity of actual statistical measurements, all apparently pointing to the same conclusions. They were partially supported and partially contradicted, as we shall see, by similar observations by Livi in Italy, Oloriz in Spain, Beddoe in England, Houzé in Belgium and Ripley and Closson in America. But there can be little doubt that, regardless of explanations, the fact of the social pre-eminence of the dolichocephalic type, or even of the dolicho-blond type seemed clear. But while Lapouge was ardent and gifted with the qualities of imagination essential to the highest scientific work he was also independent and critical of many current dogmas. He was far from accepting the many tenets of Gobinism as preached in Germany by Schemann‘s Vereinigung; nevertheless his writings undoubtedly strengthened Teutonic worship in Germany.
    Instead of being an adherent of the doctrine of race purity, he held that there was no such thing as a pure race, to say nothing of a Germanic, a Slavic or a Latin race. “On pourrait presque dire qu‘il y a dans chaque individu des échantillons de toutes les races, et que par suite il n‘y a pas de race pure.“ 23 He held that all nations were racially composite, but that their rank in civilization was determined by the character and quantity of the original elements which entered into their constitution. In his l‘Aryen, he declared that “five or six thousand years before our era, at the earliest possible epoch, at the beginnings of Aryan civilization, there already existed in central Europe and the British-Scandinavian region a confused mixture of types. It was because of this panmixia among the hordes of migrant barbarians within the historical period that the social ascendancy of any given anthropological type could not be explained by the enduring effects of conquest. But he held that certain combinations of traits are physically stable and tend continually to re-establish themselves in a high degree of purity amidst a mixed population. These are the fundamental European races. The blond dolichocephal was one such type, which by some mysterious law of biological affinity

    23 Race et milieu social, p. x.

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of specific traits, was being constantly restored out of the millions of possible mozaic combinations among the racial elements present in Europe. The social superiority of a particular racial type was to his mind not due to the persistent effects of conquest, nor indeed, to differences in social opportunity, but rather to the superior energy and intelligence which would enable a more gifted racial type to triumph over a less gifted one in the free for all struggle of social life.
    The Aryan question, therefore, resolved itself into a determination of which race or type had been socially predominant and thus the creator of civilization. In view of the undoubted domination of the tall dolichocephalous blond during the recent historical period and a growing mass of data tending to show its urban affinities and class superiority, Lapouge was convinced that this type represented the Aryan of myth and tradition. He, however, preferred to avoid designating it as the Aryan race, substituting instead the Linnaean designation Homo europaeus, whose cradle-land he agreed with Penka in placing in southern Scandinavia.
    Of coeval importance with Lapouge in founding the doctrines of social anthropology were the patient and extensive researches of Otto Ammon. His first contribution came as an unexpected result of an investigation of the army recruits of Baden undertaken at the instance of a learned society at Karlsruhe in 1886. Among many other things he found that there was a difference between rural and urban populations as regards hair-color, eye-color and head-form. The most striking difference was in the cephalic index which was found to approach mesocephaly, or 80, in each of the four cities, Mannheim, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe and Lörrach, while the index for each of the surrounding rural districts was distinctly brachycephalic, approaching 85. 24 Thus for the city of Heidelberg 37.5 per cent of the city recruits were long-headed or had a cephalic index of less than 80, while only 17.9 per cent of rural recruits were in this category. At the other extreme, brachycephals, or those with an index of 85 or more, constitute only 4.6 per cent of the city recruits but 25.4 per cent of the

    24 Results published in Anthropologische Untersuchungen der Wehrplichtigen in Baden, Hamburg, 1890.

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country. Ammon also noted that in absolute measurements the heads of city recruits tended to be longer and narrower than the heads of those from rural districts.
    These facts seem to have been independent discoveries by Ammon and yet as early as 1868 and 1869 Durand de Gros, on the basis of anthropological studies in south-central France, had noted the relatively greater frequency of long heads among town dwellers; and about the same time (1868) Calori had made observations at Modena in Italy revealing a like condition; even in Germany it had been noted by von Holder (1876) that the upper classes were more prone to long headedness and the peasants to round headedness. 25
    This superior dolichocephaly of urban populations, or the concentration of dolichocephals in the city, came to be known as Ammon‘s Law, and became the chief point of contention between the anthropo-sociologues and their opponents.
    How explain this phenomenon of urban dolichocephaly? Finding, from measurements on the same children year after year after age twelve, 26 little change in the cephalic index, Ammon rejected the possibility that urban life, with its richer foods, education and cerebral excitation, might have a tendency to produce an elongation of the skull, and concluded in favor of certain selective processes. He believed that the dolichocephals showed a stronger inclination to city life and a greater aptitude for success there than the brachycephals. This theory was further developed on the basis of numerous observations in his Die natürliche Auslese beim Menschen. 27 This is his fundamental work, but his theories were set forth with their full bearing on social life in a later work, Die Gesellschaftsordnung und ihre natürlichen Grundlagen. 28

    25 Cf. Ripley, Races of Europe, pp. 545-6.
    26 Cf. Boas, “The Form of the Head as Influenced by Growth,“ Science, N. S. vol. 4, 1896, pp. 50-1.
    27 Jena, 1893.
    28 Jena, 1895; French translation by Muffang, L‘Ordre social et ses bases naturelles. Esquisse d‘une anthroposociologie, Paris, 1899; for an English translation of a very interesting chapter of Ammon‘s work by C. C. Closson, a one-time student under Lapouge, see Journal of Political Economy, vol. 7, March 1899, pp. 204-37.

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Ammon identified various selective social processes with natural selection on the animal plane. He presented the social order as a highly complex mechanism of selection whereby social values are secured and the individual given his due. Like Galton he emphasized the unequal inheritance of human aptitudes which, he contended, are distributed among the members of a group according to the mathematical law of chances. Through the division of labor, competition and numerous tests of fitness and ability the better endowed individuals rise to the positions of greatest social importance.
    Social classes differ one from another in the distribution of human traits both morphological and psychological and thus are an unexcelled instrument of natural selection in society. By means of them those strains which succeed are segregated sufficiently from those which fail, to prevent panmixia and to insure the transmission of their superior endowment to the next generation. If the social selective processes should elevate a strain unequal to the status to which it is lifted, it will sooner or later sink to its natural level through the combined action of natural selection and legal justice. Now, the upper classes of the cities, which are notably blond and long-headed, have a greatly reduced fecundity, partly voluntary but partly due to their intense intellectual activities; hence the community must have a reserve of sound and super-fertile population from which to draw the necessary renewal. This is supplied by the rural population, from which is steadily drawn, as if by a powerful magnet, a stream of fresh recruits for the more strenuous and more stimulating life of the cities. Under the intense competition of the urban centers these new elements gradually find their level. Many fail and are eliminated; some meet with fair success, while others move to the top. By and large, justice is done the individual, while racial vigor and soundness are maintained. Ammon‘s conclusion was, therefore, in some respects optimistic in tone. Nature will in the long run, and by and large, guarantee the success of the superior and the survival of the better. This may involve the replacement of one racial type by another but the outcome is progressive

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and improving because of the infallibility of the operation of social and natural selection.
    Ammon had adopted and his finding fitted admirably into the suggestive theory that had been advanced by George Hansen (Die drei Bevölkerungsstufen, Munich, 1889) that there are three fairly well-defined physical and psychic grades in a population. It had long been a truism among social statisticians that there is a constant drift of population from country to town and city. Sir John Graunt had first demonstrated it in his “Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality ... of the City of London“ in 1662. At that time and for nearly two hundred years later city death rates exceeded city birth rates so that cities were dependent upon the country as a sort of inexhaustible nursery, not merely for their growth but even for the maintenance of their numbers. With the development of modern sanitation and the reduction of death rates cities have come to be largely self-generating, if not self-perpetuating. 29 But this fact does not affect the essence of Hansen‘s system. Ammon found that only 8 per cent of the conscripts of the cities of Karlsruhe and Freiburg were born to parents also born in the cities. Hansen found that nearly half of the population of various other German cities were the direct offspring of rural parents. Lapouge calculated for thirty large European cities that four-fifths of their increase was due to influx from the country. 30 What concerns us here is Hansen‘s doctrine that the more energetic and ambitious of the country youth migrate to the city where, entering life for the most part on its lower social levels, they undergo rigid tests of their physical and mental powers. Some rise to the professional ranks, more swell the ranks of the commercial classes, while many remain on the industrial levels or sink below the level of individual competency. Ammon added the theory that the migrants are composed of long heads in disproportionate numbers; that the rural

    29 But see S. J. Holmes, Trend of the Race, pp. 345 et seq.
    30 Professor Giddings, Principles of Sociology, pp. 125 and 337-44, has brilliantly criticized and expanded Hansen‘s theory; cf. also Ripley, op. cit., pp. 542-4.

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population, therefore, tends to become more and more brachycephalic; that the dolichocephals are more persistent amidst city conditions; that, therefore, the city populations tend to become more and more dolichocephalic; and that, in the struggle for life and success in the city, the dolichocephals are more successful, so that the upper classes are more dolichocephalic than the lower.
    So much then for the general viewpoint of the anthropo-sociologists. Let us now take a look at some of their concrete data. In the late eighties and throughout the nineties they were most assiduous in the making of measurements of the cephalic index of townspeople and country-folk, professional men and workers, migrants and permanent dwellers and the construction of endless tables. Great numbers of these tables included categories so small as to be worthless in themselves, though some weight may be attached to the fact that, even when small, they generally supported conclusions similar to those drawn from more extensive ones. This homogeneity of results of both large and small samples is, indeed, one of the most convincing evidences of the validity of the general fact most insisted upon by this school. Criticism applies not so much to the fact, therefore, as to the interpretation.
    For purposes of illustration we may reproduce certain data from Ammon‘s works which are so fundamental that they were frequently reproduced by Lapouge and others. 31 In his Anthropologische Untersuchungen of 1890 Ammon demonstrated the urban concentration of the dolichocephals by the following table:

Percentage of Long Heads and of Round Heads Among Urban and Rural Conscripts of Baden.
 


Dolichocephals
Index less than 80

Brachycephals
Index 85 and over


Urban Rural
Urban Rural
Mannheim
43.4 34.8
10.4 14.5
Heidelberg
37.5 17.9
4.6 25.4
Karlsruhe
33.0 13.0
16.5 32.9
Loerrach
25.8 21.4
25.8 28

    31 See especially Race et milieu social, pp. 125, 126, 127‚ 190 and 202.

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    From this it was obvious that the city population was more frequently long-headed, less frequently round-headed, than the rural population round about. In order to test the matter more thoroughly Ammon analyzed his data according to three groups which he distinguished in the city population: the urban, those born in the city of fathers also city-born; the semi-urban, those born in the city of fathers born in the country; and the semi-rural, those born in the country but migrant to the city. He was then at pains to show that the migrants from country to city were more dolichocephalic than those left behind, so that the rural population tended to become more and more brachycephalic while the dolichocephaly of the city was maintained, or even increased. These facts are illustrated in the following table taken from his Die natürliche Auslese: 32

Cephalic Indexes of Various Migrant Classes at Karlsruhe 33
 
Average for the district  83.0
Baden immigrants (Semi-Rurals)  83.1
Non-Baden immigrants (Semi-Rurals)  82.5
Semi-Urbans  81.5
True Urbans  81.4
Born at Karlsruhe, father born in another city  80.2
Born in another city; father also  81.2
Born in a city; father in the country  80.3
Born in the country; father in the city  82.8

When analyzed into the percentages of long heads and round heads in each of the above classes the matter was much more striking. 34 For example, at Karlsruhe he found that dolichocephalic individuals (index less than 80) constituted only 12.2 per cent of rurals while they comprised 14.9 per cent of immigrants or semi-rurals, 25.9 per cent of semi-urbans, and 33.3

    32 p 91.
    33 We omit from this table his figures, far from convincing, tending to show that in absolute measurements the urbans had heads both longer and narrower than the rurals. He was not consistent on this point.
    34 Ibid., p. 82.

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per cent of urbans. On the other hand, brachycephalic inividuals (index 85 or more) constituted 38.2 per cent of rurals, and 33.3 per cent of semi-rurals, but only 18.4 per cent of semi-urbans and 12.4 per cent of urbans. The results for Freiburg were exactly similar in revealing an increasing dolichocephaly and a decreasing brachycephaly as one moved from rural to urban groups. The above figures were apparently viewed as the most important of all of Ammon‘s tables.
    Finally, the relative success of different types in the competition of city life was tested by studying the distribution of head-form among students of the gymnasia. He found that, for the three upper classes of the four gymnasia at Karlsruhe and Freiburg taken together, in all 111 students, those born in the country showed an average index of 82.7, the semi-urbans, 82.4, and urbans 81.0. For the lower group of 80 students, which was less subject to processes of elimination, the averages for the same categories were respectively 83.3, 83.1 and 82.9. 35 Such minute differences in averages as these are frequent in the literature of anthropo-sociology, but in repeated investigations the differences were, as a rule, arranged in the same order and hence supported the general case. These data indicated the lesser brachycephaly of the upper strata of society, inasmuch as the successful students constituted the recruits to the professions.
    In spite of the fact that most of the vast arrays of measurements which this school made were of brachycephalic types — the averages being usually definitely above rather than below 80 — the cities and the upper classes revealed less brachycephaly, whereupon the data were interpreted as showing the urban affinity and the social superiority of the dolichocephal. The less brachycephalous very often became the dolichocephalous. The final conclusions were at length formulated by Lapouge in the form of “the fundamental Laws of anthropo-sociology.“ 36 They are as follows: (1) Law of the distribution of wealth: In countries where races are mixed,

    35 Ibid., p. 200.
    36 These were originally published in the Journal of Political Economy, vol. 6, 1897, pp. 54-92, and Revue scientifique, Oct. 1897, and repeated in L‘Aryen, 1899; also in Race et milieu social, 1909.

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wealth increases inversely as the cephalic index. This conclusion was derived from the fact that the political divisions with the lower cephalic index had the greater wealth, as shown by taxes paid, personal property, etc. (2) Law of altitudes: In areas of mixed population, the dolichocephals, Homo Europaeus, live at the lower altitudes. It had long been established that the Teutonic type was more frequent in the low-lands and the Alpine in the up-lands. (3) Law of the distribution of cities: Important cities are almost all located in dolichocephalic areas, or in the least brachycephalic of the brachycephalic areas. That is, cities are located in the low-lands or along rivers and sea-coast. The alternative in this law following the word “or“ is designed to meet the difficulties raised by Livi‘s investigations in Italy 37 in which it was shown that northern Italy is at once more brachycephalic than southern Italy, has greater cities, more wealth, etc. (4) Law of urban indexes: The cephalic index of urban populalions is lower than that of surrounding rural populations. This was Ammon‘s great demonstration and the primary basis of all anthropo-sociology. In the minds of both Ammon and Lapouge it carried the implication that the mortality among the round-heads in cities was greater than that among the long-heads. (5) Law of concentration of dolichoïdes: Migrating elements concentrate by attraction in dolichoïde centers. This means merely that cities attract migrants. Cities — in France and Germany — were richer in long-heads and in wealth. Migrants have in all ages and climes moved to centers of wealth and opportunity. One may also note the euphemism of the word “dolichoïde“; it suggests dolichocephaly but it means “less brachycephalic.“ (6) Law of emigration: It is the less brachycephalic in any population who emigrate. It should be noted that in this law the migrants are said to be “less brachycephalic“ rather than “more dolichocephalic.“ It became clear that in France and Germany the migrants city-ward were in many areas overwhelmingly of brachycephalic type; but it could still be maintained, with truth, that they were on an average “less“ round-headed than the average of the areas whence they came. Our explanation of this fact on a later page is the

    37 Anthropometria militare, Rome, 1896.

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basic criticism of anthropo-sociological “laws.“ (7) Law of urban elimination: Urban life operates selectively against brachycephalic elements. This law was derived by logical inference from the same data as (4) and (5). It is another way of saying that cities remained relatively dolichocephalic. Collignon 38 advanced the thesis that the round-heads return to the country, thus maintaining the long-headedness of the cities; but there was no convincing proof of this. Nor was it shown that, in fact, the surplus of births over deaths among the round-heads was less than among the long-heads. (8) Law of formarriage: The cephalic index of offspring of parents from different regions or countries is less than the average index in the places of origin. This means merely that the children of immigrants show a lower cephalic index on an average than does the population of the provinces or departments whence came their parents. It does not imply that such children reveal any tendency toward a narrowing of skull. It is specious and not significant. (9) Law of social stratification: Upper classes are more dolichocephalic than lower classes. From the statistics of students it was concluded that the round-heads tended to be eliminated in competitions for the higher social positions. They would, therefore, be most frequent among industrial workers. (10) Law of the intellectuals: Brain workers have craniums large in absolute dimensions, and especially in breadth. We note later that the greater absolute breadth of intellectuals worried the anthropo-sociologues not a little. (11) Law of epochs: Since pre-historic times the cephalic index has steadily increased, everywhere in Europe. This last was supported by investigators in nearly every European country. It was of great importance in Lapouge‘s estimate of the future of Europe for he foresaw the complete obliteration of the blond dolichocephal and then a long European night. It is obvious that this “law“ conflicted with the repeated assertion of the higher urban mortality of the round-heads and the greater urban persistence of the long-heads, but this contradiction passed without comment. While Lapouge formulated this statement of the “laws,“ Ammon emphasized the substance of all but the first three.

    38 Ripley, op. cit., p. 550.

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    Analysis shows that the essence of anthropo-sociological doctrine is contained in Ammon‘s so-called law of the urban concentration of the long heads and their triumph there over their rivals. Most of the “laws“ are merely restatements of this fact from different angles. It may be recalled that in the struggle of classes in modern industrial centers the social selectionists, Lapouge, Collignon, Ammon and their followers, readily discerned a new form of the age-old struggle of races. This was an idea that had been advanced by that ardent defender of feudalism and aristocratic class prerogatives, Comte Henri de Boulainvilliers, two centuries earlier. It was repeated during the Revolution by Abbé Siéyes, and subsequently by Guizot, Gobineau, Gumplowicz and many others. It has found its proper form under the various metamorphoses of Aryanism, Teutonism, Anglo-Saxonism and Nordicism. Would it not be interesting indeed to have an anthropological survey of our Ku-Kluxing “Anglo-Saxons!“
    It was because of his urban concentration that Ammon endowed the dolichocephal with a taste for novelty and adventure and the brachycephal with a disposition at once pacific, thrifty, reflective, and conservative and with a predestined attachment to the soil. It is, therefore, of the highest importance to examine fully the reasons for the relatively greater frequency of long-heads in the cities of France and Germany.
    The underlying fact is an historical one, namely, the later arrival in western Europe of the Alpine type. As Ripley frequently indicates, the round-heads filtered into western Europe by a slow process of immigrant invasion. 39 Coming as they did around and through the Alpine highlands they tended generally to occupy areas of higher elevation, as the uplands of south Germany and the Vosges, Savoy and Auvergne in France. The round-heads were also found concentrated in such isolated areas as Brittany. But, through the advantages of accessibility, the cities developed in the river valleys and along the coast. Each of them had what Lapouge called a “zone of attraction.“ For the village this zone was small and purely local; for Paris it was all France and even beyond. The result was that the round-headed stock was relatively

    39 Op. cit., see especially pp. 470 et seq.

120 ANTHROPO-SOCIOLOGY OR SOCIAL SELECTIONISM



less frequent within the zones of attraction of most of the cities. This is the central and crucial fact of the whole matter. It is particularly noticeable that the cities studied by Ammon — those of the upper Rhine valley — and by Lapouge — Montpellier and smaller places near the Mediterranean littoral — had background of high elevation and Alpine concentration. Migration was therefore from brachycephalic to less brachycephalic territory in their data. The cities, then, were from the beginning relatively dolichocephalic because the indigenous population had been long-headed and because the Teutonic invaders had taken possession of the river valleys and sea coasts. They tended to remain less brachycephalic than their hinterland because of their original constitution and because they drew extensively from the accessible lowlands. The cities of France and Germany were inevitably becoming more round-headed because as they grew they drew more and more from the brachycephalic hinterland.
    It is here one meets a curious fact and a crucial one. It was maintained that it was the long-headed type which migrated — and yet the cities were becoming more and more round-headed. In fact the tables of both Ammon and Lapouge, especially the latter, show that the migrants were predominantly brachycephalic. And yet, it was said with truth that the migrants were on an average less brachycephalic than the population of their province or department on an average. In order for this to be true it was only necessary for the dolichocephalic types to constitute a slightly larger contingent of the migrants than of the non-migrants. This is clearly what was happening, and is readily explained by the relative frequency of long-heads in the more accessible areas. It was not a question of race but of geographical propinquity on the one hand and of cultural isolation on the other plus the capriciousness of a statistical proportion.
    There can be no doubt about the fact that the mass of the migrants were brachycephalic. It is shown in nearly every table where actual numbers of migrants are given. Lapouge, for example, repeatedly published the following table 40 showing the distribution over 70,000 migrants from the department of Aveyron in

    40 Cf. Race et milieu social, pp. 121 and 208.

121 ANTHROPO-SOCIOLOGY OR SOCIAL SELECTIONISM



the heart of the Auvergne region. The cephalic index of Aveyron is given as 85.5 and this may rightly be taken as the approximate index of the migrants. These Aveyronese went in great numbers to the departments of the Seine (26,736) which is credited with a cephalic index of 81.5, and to that of Hérault (18,191) with an index of 82.5.

EMIGRATION FROM AVEYRON
 
Departments Receiving
1000 or More Migrants
 Number  Index of Receiving
Department



Aude 1294 81.0
Bouches-du-Rhône 4098 82.2
Cantal 2697 87.0
Gard 2228 83.1
Haute-Garonne 3289 83.4
Gironde 2207 82.6
Hérault 18191 82.5
Lot 1927 85.9
Lozère 1178 87.8
Rhône 1043 86.0
Seine 26736 81.5
Tarn 4607 83.7
Tarn-et-Garonne 1471 85.8
Natives of Aveyron, 456,068; those remaining, 374,162; emigrants, 81,906.

    It is evident from this table that most of the migrants went to departments with a lower index than that of Aveyron. The only exceptions are Lot, Lozère, Rhône and Tarn-et-Garonne, all of which received small contingents. But it is equally evident that the migrants themselves were distinctly brachycephalic. The same conclusion may be drawn from a companion table showing migration into the department of Hérault from fourteen other departments. Of the 88,289 immigrants, nearly 80,000 came from areas where the average cephalic index was higher than that of Hérault which was 82.5. Taking the averages of the departments whence they came as the averages for the migrants one finds that the index for these nearly 80,000 approaches 85, while that of the

122 ANTHROPO-SOCIOLOGY OR SOCIAL SELECTIONISM



remaining 8,000 exceeds 80 on the average. Unfortunately these tables do not show the spread or range of cephalic index within the various contingents. From other tables one may reasonably suppose that the range was from around 65 to around 95. But there can be no doubt whatever that the vast majority of the migrants studied by both Ammon and Lapouge were round-headed.
    Ripley 41 relying on Topinard and Demolins remarks: “Why does not the Alpine type appear through statistical eyes as endowed with a peculiar aptitude for migration? For the sterile upland areas of his habitation are almost invariably characterized by emigration to the lowlands and to the cities.“ And yet he lends some support to Ammon‘s view “that there is some mental characteristic of the long-headed race or types, either their energy, ambition or hardiness, which makes them peculiarly prone to migrate from the country to the city; or else, what would compass the same result, a peculiar disinclination on the part of the broad-headed Alpine race of central Europe thus to betake itself to the towns.“ 42 This latter induction was erroneous.
    There was thus a contradiction between the conclusion that the Teutonic type was peculiarly wanderlustful and the fact that the majority of migrants were round-heads. But this brings us face to face with another contradiction. Ammon laid special stress on the superior success and survival power of the long-heads in the cities. He seemed to see the brachycephals so badly worsted in the struggle for life that they melted away before the superior vigor of the dolichocephals. He pictured the round-head migrants as being crushed out in one or two generations and the long-heads as also disappearing but only after three or four generations and after they had achieved some degree of social distinction. But he also says: “In general the lower classes of the cities are richer in dolichocephals than the rural class.“ 43 And yet, both he and Lapouge recognized and emphasized the increasing brachycephalization of western Europe, both city and country. In fact,

    41 Op. cit. p. 523.
    42 Op. cit. p. 548.
    43 l‘Ordre social, p. 197.

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Lapouge pointed to the size of the current of round-heads pouring into the cities, and their fecundity and tenacity of life, as evidence of the gradual submergence of the long-heads. 44 Ammon 45 saw in this brachycephalization the revenge of the roundheads for their military and social subjection by the long-heads. Their firm roots in the soil would insure their ultimate triumph, it may be centuries hence, because the urban affinities of the long-heads insure their ultimate extinction.
    Thus the “crepuscule des Aryens“ already hangs like a pall over Europe. Here Ammon quotes from Alfred Fouillée 46 who had been much impressed by the discovery of the gradual broadening of west European skulls while the complexion was slowly darkening: “C‘est pour ainsi dire, une russification générale et lente de l‘Europe, à laquelle prend part l‘Allemagne elle-même, un panslavisme ou panceltisme spontané.“ If then the cities, which were once the main centers of concentration of the long-heads, were growing at a prodigious rate; and if the round-heads were continually eliminated there by an excessive death rate; and if, nevertheless, the cities were becoming darker in complexion and rounder in head-form, how can one escape the conclusion that the round-heads were drawn, as if by powerful magnates, to the centers of urban life. This fact would appear all the more notable in view of the greater isolation and remoteness of the Alpines from the centers of attraction. We may note in passing that it was never demonstrated that the round-heads showed less survival power, or a lower vital index in the cities. 47 In fact, as the above argument indicates, the anthropo-sociologues implied by the logic

    44 See his “Récherches sur la dépopulation,“ originally published in the Revue d‘économie politique, 1895 and 1896, and reproduced in Race et milieu. Also his “Evolution de la population de la France. Populations actuelles,“ pp. 64-70 in the latter work.
    45 Histoire d‘une idée, p. 29 et seq.
    46 “Dégénérescence,“ Revue des deus-mondes, October 15, 1895.
    47 Raymond Pearl says: “The term ‘vital index‘ may be used to designate that measure of a population‘s condition which is given by the ratio of births to deaths within a given time.“ Studies in Human Biology, Baltimore, 1924, p. 227.

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of their own data and assumptions that the survival power of the dark round-heads in the cities exceeded that of the blond long-heads.
    When Ammon‘s law of dolichocephalic urban affinity was first enunciated it was stated as a universal fact. It was soon contradicted, at least in part, by findings of Livi in Italy, Oloriz in Spain, and Beddoe in England. In 1894 Oloriz published data for Spain and Beddoe for England showing that in predominantly dolichocephalous areas the rural population was richer in long-heads than the urban. Similarly, in his famous Anthropometria militare (1896) Livi found that, although the law of Ammon held for the north of Italy, the opposite relation obtained in the south. Thus, for example, at Madrid and Barcelona Oloriz found an urban index of 77.77 and a rural index of 78.14. Here the difference supported Ammon. But at Granada and Valencia the corresponding indexes were 77.98 and 77.42. Beddoe‘s differences were similarly minute but on the whole tended to contradict Ammon, as did measurements by Houzé in Belgium. To the modern statistician these differences appear so painfully small that the question arises whether they are really significant or only the expected variations of samples, a question to which we recur.
    But it was Livi‘s attack which really forced Ammon to restate his law of urban concentration. 48 The population of north Italy was found to be overwhelmingly brachycephalic owing to a large infusion of Alpines. The cephalic index fell steadily from the north to the relatively pure Mediterranean south with the result that the cities in the north were less brachycephalic than the provinces as wholes, in the center there was no appreciable difference between city and country, but in the south the cities were less dolichocephalic than the country. Livi argued that the situation in Italy as in Baden was readily explained by the fact that cities draw from a relatively wide area and thus acquire a population less homogeneous than that of the environing country and will, therefore, vary away from the latter and always in the opposite

    48 See Ammon, op. cit., section V; Lapouge, Race et milieu social, pp 191-5; Ripley, op. cit., pp. 547-8.

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direction. This explanation stands uncontradicted and appears adequate.
    In consequence of these facts Ammon modified his position. In view of the situation in southern Italy he inferred that the Mediterraneans prove inferior to the round-heads in social competition, an interpretation which Lapouge was not inclined to accept. 49 At the same time he modified his “law“ to read as follows: “Wherever a people of Germanic race is mixed with a brachycephalic people, the dolichocephals concentrate in the cities, which are, in consequence, more dolichocephalic on the average than the surrounding country.“ 50 This eliminated south Italy, Spain and England from the area of operation. Thus the magic of the law was extracted; for in its new form it stated nothing more than that the Alpines had filtered into south Germany and France along the highlands.
    Before leaving this phase of the matter, however, there are two other features to be noted, namely, the smallness of the differences and the extent of overlapping. The smallness of the differences appears in all tables, even those of Livi which altogether comprised 300,000 conscripts, by far the largest and most reliable body of pertinent measurements. Thus in 50 of the 69 Italian provinces the difference between city and country was less than unity in each case. When Ammon‘s tables are subjected to statistical treatment by modern methods one finds that some of the differences between averages are less than the probable error and therefore wholly lacking in causal significance. On the whole, however, his differences are sufficiently large, small as they are, to be significant. His general case stands.
    But even where the differences are sufficiently large to be indicative of a veritable cause, there is much overlapping in the distribution. This overlapping reveals itself in two ways. There is first the lack of consistency in the trends of the averages. Thus in Livi‘s list 11 of the 43 provinces north of Rome are contrary to Ammon‘s law while 6 of the 25 south of Rome support it. Such results are typical.

    49 Op. cit., p. 194.
    50 Op. cit., p. 27.

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    Much more important, however, from the theoretical view point is the wide range of indexes for both city and its environs and the consequent overlapping of the measurements almost, if not quite, throughout the entire range. This overlapping is illustrated in every table. The following from Die natürliche Auslese51 shows the percentage distribution of head form among 167 recruits born at Karlsruhe and 445 born in the country.
 
Index-Group City-born  Country-born
Dolichocephalic 1.2 0.2
Mesocephalic 27.0 12.4
Brachycephalic 55.1 57.5
Hyper Brachycephalic 15.5 27.7
Ultra Brachycephalic 1.2 2.2

The city conscripts are thus more dolichocephalic, but the vast majority in both groups are brachycephalic. In both cases the indexes range from about 75 to above 90; differences are, therefore, not absolute. Even if the data compelled one to admit that in France and Germany the Teutonic type showed a greater tendency to migrate to the cities than the Alpine, which admission we see to be highly doubtful, if not contrary to truth, he would at the same time be impressed with the fact that migratoriness was not the exclusive possession of one type. This is an observation of even greater significance for the general theory of racial differences than the slightly greater average or frequency of one type or the other. If some of the long-heads were highly restless, enterprising and wanderlustful, some of them were extremely static, unenterprising and sedentary. The same was true of the round-heads. If some of the long-heads were irresistibly drawn to the cities by some mystical inner cravings of soul, others were immovably attached to the soil by an inertia expressive of the very essence of their being. Likewise the round-heads. As between the two types the question of superiority in migratoriness was never a question of absolute differences but of relative proportions or statistical frequencies. This is always the case in racial contrasts or com-

    51 P. 73.

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parisons. Consequently sweeping characterizations of types as generally or universally endowed with this or that psychic quality are never more than qualifiedly true. For if one were to seek a group of restless, enterprising and migratory individuals he would certainly find them of different anthropological type. And if he could then be certain that his data were entirely free from every other subverting influence except the inherent tendencies of biological factors, he would be in a position to state that one type is more migratory than the other. But the superiority in this case would be robbed of much of its sociological significance for highly migratory individuals would be found in each anthropological category.
    We may close the discussion of the urban affinity of the dolichocephalic type by a reference to the suggestion advanced by Professor Eugene Pittard in his Race and History 52 that the high dolichocephaly of the cities may be explained by the greater stature of the city populations. He advances the thesis that city conditions, especially less strenuous labor, result in greater stature and that at the same time in consequence of “a law of morphological correlation“ the head grows in length more than in width. This is certainly an ill-founded theory. We have not gone into the question of stature in this essay as it is a trait of secondary importance. We may note here, however, that Quetelet in the thirties had found city populations taller than rural and had explained the fact as due to better food. Two-thirds of a century later Ripley examined all the extant evidence and found that the almost universal rule was that city populations were shorter than rural. This was explained by the rapid growth of industrial activities whose attendant conditions — child labor, bad housing, lack of air and sunshine, — stunted growth. But evidence is now accumulating that the urban populations are increasing in stature. It is not probable that this is significantly related to shorter hours, improved housing, more and better food. In any case, the trends of stature change do not fit Professor Pittard‘s thesis; Europe is becoming brachycephalic at the time it is becoming taller. Our own opinion is that the most important explanation of differences be-

    52 New York, 1925, p. 23.

128 ANTHROPO-SOCIOLOGY OR SOCIAL SELECTIONISM



tween urban and rural populations as regards stature, as also cephalic index, is migration. Professor Clark Wissler has recently examined the data for both Europe and America (“Distribution of Stature in the United States,“ The Scientific Monthly, vol. 18, Feb. 1924, pp. 129-43) and finds it to be a universal law that “the populations of cities will differ from the surrounding districts in both size and variability.“ In Sweden the city populations are shorter than the rural; in Italy they are taller; in the United States they are shorter. “It is quite improbable that either city life or mere density of population has any effect upon size, the phenomenon we have noted being entirely a matter of migration.“
    So much then for the mere cephalic index. L. Manouvrier in very telling criticisms 53 pointed out the uncritical and fascinated attachment of the Ammon-Lapouge school for this index to the exclusion of other anthropological data. Lapouge particularly made a fetish of the head-form; in 1887 and 1889 he had declared: “I am convinced that in the next century millions will cut each others‘ throats because of one or two degrees more or less of cephalic index.“ After the Great War he pointed to this statement as a prophecy whose fulfilment had exceeded his worst apprehensions! 54 Manouvrier also pointed to the lack of any convincing evidence of correspondence between head-form and moral and intellectual qualities.
    But now we come to another extremely interesting and significant fact. Ammon made the long-headed “Aryan“ at once the most intellectual and the most energetic of men. He rarely ventured to suggest the identity of his “Aryan“ with the extant and authentic Teuton. 55 Perhaps the reason may be found in the fact that there was a lack of proper correspondence between the head-form and the complexion of the migrants. These latter were found to be perponderantly dark in hair-color. The eye-

    53 Especially in “L‘indice céphalic et la pseudo-sociologie,“ La revue de l‘école d‘anthropologie, 1899, pp. 233-59 and pp. 280-96.
    54 Eugenics in Race and State, Baltimore, 1923.
    55 In his Auslese, p. 177 et seq., he describes in the usual language the psychic traits and social evidence of “Die hellpigmentirten langköpfigen Germanen,“ saying among other things: “Wie alle Arier die Germanen die geborenen Beherrscher anderer Völker sind.“

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color of the migrants was sometimes lighter on the average than for the Duchy as a whole and sometimes darker, but Ammon was convinced that the dark shades were more frequent than long heads.
    The following tables are illustrative:

COLOR OF EYES: PERCENTAGE 0F LIGHT AND DARK 56

Karlsruhe
Freiburg

Light Dark
Light Dark
Average of Duchy 63.3 36.7
63.3 36.7
Average of Arrondissement 56.6 43.4
65.6 34.4
Immigrants from Arrondissement 67.5 32.5
51.5 48.5
Immigrants from Baden 59.0 41.0
63.2 37.8
Non-Baden Immigrants 67.7 32.3
Semi-Urbans 55.5 45.5
69.2 33.8
Urbans 64.6 35.4
52.1 47.9

COLOR OF HAIR: PERCENTAGE OF LIGHT AND DARK 57

Karlsruhe
Freiburg

Light Dark
Light Dark
Average of Duchy 43.5 55.0
43.5 55.0
Average of Arrondissement 31.7 67.4
23.5 66.2
Immigrants from Arrondissement 27.5 72.5
22.6 75.4
Immigrants from Baden 30.8 68.2
29.8 69.5
Non-Baden Immigrants 38.1 60.3
Semi-Urbans 25.9 72.1
31.3 67.5
Urbans 37.5 62.4
27.1 66.7

    Lapouge, whose attachment to the blond dolichocephal was most pronounced, was put to the greatest ingenuity to explain the attraction of the city for, not the long-headed merely, but the dark complexioned. He discovered 58 that there were certain brachycephalic Aryan hybrids which had the head of the latter and the complexion of the former. Moreover, the use of pomades by

    56 Die natürlische Auslese, p. 97.
    57 Die natürlische Auslese, p. 102.
    58 Race et milieu social, pp. 205-6; similar passage in Ammon‘s Auslese, pp. 229-30.

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city-folk would make their hair appear darker. He also discovered that “urban life provokes in the individual a re-balance of pigment, whereby the skin becomes lighter and the hair and eyes darker“! He also thought that the vitality necessary to resist the exhausting and abnormal life in cities was more frequently found among the dark complexioned, an argument which directly controverted the general thesis of blond superiority. Thus the long-headed brunet became “the foreordained urban type.“
    We need not pause here to discuss the matter further than to note that this predominant brunetness of the migrants accords with the facts already noted that the migrants, in the regions studied by Ammon and Lapouge, were overwhelmingly Alpine in their main racial characteristics, though doubtless much mixed in blood. We may also note the fact, sometimes mentioned in this literature, brought out by Ripley and since then re-emphasized by numerous investigators, that the light Teutonic eye has been remarkably persistent among the hybrid types of western Europe. It is so persistent as to indicate at least its partial dominance over various darker shades. There remains the question whether the brunet types have a higher vitality, a more resistant constitution.
    This matter was thoroughly surveyed by Ripley. 59 He found the extant evidence of special brunetness of city populations to include Germany, France, England and Italy. This evidence was very extensive, including, as it did, Virchow‘s study of 6,000,000 school children in Germany, Georg von Mayr‘s study of 760,000 school children in Bavaria, Livi‘s great work which covered 300,000 conscripts, Beddoe‘s extensive studies in Great Britain, and numerous others. He found also that various observers had reported a greater resistance to disease among brunets than among blonds. Baxter had noted it among Civil War soldiers; Beddoe among children of Bristol. Ellis explained the superior resistance to disease by woman as due to her darker color. Finally Ripley pointed out that, if in some way pigmentation is an index of vitality a two-fold selection would operate to increase urban brunetness.

    69 Op. cit., pp. 555-9.

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There would be a greater frequency of brunets among cityward migrants; and a greater resistance by them to the hardships of city life. “It would determine the character both of the urban immigrants and, to coin a phrase, of the urban persistents as well.“ It is worth while to add to this summary by Ripley the conclusion reached by F. G. Parsons in his recent study of “The Colour Index of the British Isles“ 60 to the effect that city populations in Great Britain and Ireland are as a rule more brunet than the surrounding country, but that, in areas of great nigrescence, the city populations are less dark than the surrounding populations. This again points to the fluidity of urban populations as the principal explanation. But Parsons also inclines to the view that there is some selection against the blond types in the city environment.
    We come then to the law of social stratification or the asserted superiority of the dolichocephal. It has been a favorite doctrine since Gobineau, and especially in these later days, that the tall, dolichocephalous blond, the genuine Teutonic or Nordic type, was particularly frequent among the upper classes. We have seen that Chamberlain felt compelled, in order to include all aristocracy within the ranks of his Teutons, to make the latter include brunets as well as blonds. The social selectionists seemed at times to try very hard to make themselves believe in the social superiority of the blond long-heads, but facts are stubborn things and this school professed a deep loyalty to statistical tables. And the tables showed too frequently that brunets were more numerous than blonds among those of high intellectual rank. We may attack this problem, as we did that of urban affinity, by asking, first, whether the intellectual classes were in fact predominantly long-headed, and secondly, whether they were in fact predominantly blond.
    The facts regarding long-headedness are precisely the same as they were regarding urban affinity. In France and Germany the students, who were taken as representative of the upper classes, were more dolichocephalous than the conscripts from the same provinces. In Italy this was true in the north but the reverse held

    60 Jour. Roy. Anth. Inst., vol. 50, 1920, pp. 159-83.

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true in the south. 61 Under the curious hypnotic spell which the cephalic index had cast over the anthropo-sociologues they made the long skull the secret of intellectual power. They revived Gall‘s phrenology in a new and indefinite form. For them head-form determined psychic qualities. 62 And yet they made the long-headed Mediterranean inferior to the round-headed Alpine and they would have been the last to admit the Negro, most dolichocephalous of races, to the ranks of the chosen people.
    As regards complexion we find here somewhat the same contradiction we met in studying urban affinity. The students were in Ammon‘s data darker in both hair and eyes than the corresponding conscripts. 63 This would have indicated that the dark long-heads were especially drawn to intellectual pursuits. But Ammon, in a thoroughly self-contradictory manner, testified that he found evidence that the Teutonic Aryan type, or blond dolichocephal, tended to be reconstituted among the upper classes from the mélange of anthropological elements found there. How would this be possible in view of the special predominance of brunet types among the intellectuals? Ammon confesses the weakness of the case in his excuse that the pure Aryan disappears before complete reconstitution has been attained. “Mais la disparition arrive avantque le but soit atteint.“ Moreover, he emphasized the extensive hybridization of the German population and asserted that pure types are becoming more and more rare with each passing generation. But this would not result if there were any general tendency toward atavistic returns of ancestral types. In Baden, for example, he found only 1.2 per cent of the conscripts were Teutonic in stature, head-form and color of hair, eyes and skin, while only 0.6 per cent were at once short, round-headed and dark. Ripley, 64 quotes Ammon as writing that he had not in many thousands of heads found one which in all respects repre-

    61 See the extensive table reproduced by Lapouge, Race et milieu social, pp. 208-10, from Statistiques anthropologiques du Ministère de Guerre italien.
    62 See Ammon, op. cit., p. 15.
    63 See Auslese, pp. 222-30, especially p. 229.
    64 Op. cit., p. 108.

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sented the perfect Alpine type; in his Zur Anthropologie der Badener, 65 a truly monumental work, Amman after a most painstaking analysis concluded, that there were in 6800 conscripts 1.45 per cent pure North Europeans and 0.39 per cent pure Alpines. In this case the Nord-europäeischer Typus comprised blue eyes, blond hair, white skin, long head and a stature of at least 170 cm.
    All of this indicated inevitably that most members of the upper classes should be of mixed type. Indeed, Amman is struck with the great frequency of long heads combined with dark complexions among the professional classes, and ventures the opinion that “as regards intellectual traits, a slight infusion of brachycephalic blood proves advantageous in that it tempers the over-ardent spirits of the Aryans with qualities of calculation and perseverance and thus renders them more apt at scientific pursuits.“ But he would warn against attaching much weight to mere complexion because one meets persons of true Germanic type as regards skin, hair and eyes, but who have round heads and, therefore, are of brachycephalic psychic type! The head-form is the thing; it determines the shape of the brain and hence the psychic type. 66
    But just here we meet another anomaly, set forth by Lapouge as the “law of intellectuals.“ It had been noted by Durand de Gros that the heads of the upper classes are larger in absolute dimensions, both length and breadth, than those of the lower classes. This was confirmed by Amman, Beddoe, Lapouge and Collignon. It also appeared that the increase in breadth tended to exceed the increase in length, so that the cephalic index was elevated. Beddoe and Houzé considered the broader heads the more capacious. In other words the intellectuals as a special class showed a tendency toward largeness and roundness of head. This “law“ thus contradicted the closely related “law“ of class stratification. Lapouge was thus driven to call the intellectual “un eurycephale, un faux brachycephale.“ 67 Moreover, from studies in Spain and England where brachycephalic stock was absent, it appeared that the heads

    65 Jena, 1899, p. 210.
    66 Histoire, pp. 14-5 and 27.
    67 Race et milieu social, p. 212.

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of the educated were less dolichocephalic than of the uneducated. 68 Confirmation of these facts is found in a very interesting and discriminating work by Alfred Niceforo, Les classes pauvres. Recherches anthroposociologiques et sociales. 69 He made a careful anthropometric study of several thousand children divided according to economic status into “Aisés“ and “Pauvres.“ He found 70 no appreciable difference in cephalic index, but a greater circumference of head and greater weight of brain among the “Aisés.“ Blue eyes as well as blond hair were less frequent among the “Aisés.“ There was, of course, much overlapping in the distribution of the two classes.
    We are thus landed in almost hopeless confusion. By one we are told that the cephalic index lessens as we move from peasants through artisans to professionals. By another we are told that intellectuals, especially students from whom professionals are recruited, show a propensity toward broadness of head. In spite of subtle suggestion that the blond Teutonic type is the possessor of superior energy and brains we find the professional and student classes marked by a predominant brunetness. It would appear that the anthropo-sociologues discovered a mare‘s nest. In view of the evidences of unusual mixture of types among the upper classes it would have at least been more logical to explain superiority in intelligence and energy as due to selection and the crossing of superior strains, rather than as due to the presence of one of the two obvious ekments. 71
    Some confirmation of this interpretation may possibly be found in the facts presented by Ripley 72 regarding the distribution of artists and men of letters and science in France and in Italy. In France the relatively dolichocephalic river valleys greatly excel; but in Italy an equal pre-eminence attaches to the brachycephalic north. In both countries the areas of superiority correspond to

    68 Ibid.,p. 213.
    69 Paris, 1905.
    70 Ibid., pp. 46, 50 and 51.
    71 For additional evidence that the brains of the upper classes are larger than those of the lower see Part II, infra.
    72 P. 523 et seq.

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areas of greatest urbanization. 73 Urban centers doubtless attract the more able, energetic and ambitious within their zones of attraction. These marry there and become the progenitors of the majority of the nation‘s genius. But cities are also the centers of the most numerous and powerful cultural cross-currents. There are three reasons, therefore, why cities prove especially fecund in men of genius. There is, first and possibly of great importance, some as yet unweighted advantage in the frequent crossing of racial types which cities facilitate. There is, secondly and probably more important, the intermarriage within the city of the selected individuals of unusual gifts from the surrounding population. And there is, thirdly, and equally essential, the wide range and intensity of cultural stimulation which cities give the various kinds of talent born within them.
    Little remained, therefore, from the vast labors of the school of social selectionists to support the doctrine of the biological superiority of the Teutonic type. Lapouge had said in his L‘Aryen of 1899: “Il prédomine dans les arts, l‘industrie, le commerce, les sciences et les lettres.“ 74 Ten years later he asserted that he was still waiting for some effective refutation of the theses of anthropo-sociology by equally extensive researches. 75 But we have seen that the internal evidence of the anthropo-sociologists own tables is sufficiently confusing and confuting to undermine the validity of their so-called “laws.“ They themselves were compelled to so modify the fundamental law of urban concentration that little was left except the assertion of the obvious. The magic of their theories was largely dissipated when it could no longer be maintained that whatever superiority existed was due either to dolichocephaly or to blondness. In fact, attention was called to the fact that the negroes, generally esteemed incapable of progress, were among the most dolichocephalous of peoples, while they themselves admitted the greater frequency of brunets among migrants and upper classes. The selectionist could still maintain that the

    73 Cf. L. F. Ward‘s extensive study of Odin‘s data, Applied Sociology, Boston, 1906, pp. 135-223.
    74 P. 399.
    75 Race et milieu social, p. xx.

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difference between urban and rural head-form evidenced some sort of selective action. But the skeptic, viewing the small differences in the averages on which the theory was founded, would be strongly inclined to emphasize the great overlapping of the indices as indicating that both long heads and round heads were attracted by the glamour of the city. He would also emphasize the relation of migratoriness to physical habitat, ease of transport and communication, and the social stimulus of economic conditions and cultural contacts.
    It cannot well be doubted that the power of the city operates selectively on different psychic types in the population, but that the selective action is related to head-form has not been clearly demonstrated. But, if one were to attempt to prove it statistically for American cities, he could, by a judicious selection of time and place, prove that the lower class was either predominantly dolichocephalous (south Italians) or predominantly brachycephalous (Poles and Lithuanians). An actual illustration of the fallacy of neglecting in such studies those population movements due to immigration and emigration is found in Macdonald‘s study of school children in Washington. 76 He found the children of the laboring classes somewhat less dolichocephalous than those of the commercial and professional classes. The former showed 8 per cent of long-heads and 52 per cent of broad, while the latter showed 13 per cent of long and 36 per cent of broad. The remainder in each case, 40 per cent of the former and 53 per cent of the latter, were mesocephalic. Differences here are obviously small; every grade of cephalic index is found at all social levels. Whether the differences are significant is doubtful; they appear to be no greater than such as might be due wholly to the variability of sampling. Whatever difference there is might well, in this country, be due to any one of several factors affecting lines of migration and immigration. The literature of Anthropo-Sociology abounds in such statistics.
    In sociological explanation much that appears due to one or another obvious factor may be due merely to the accidents of time

    76 A. Macdonald, Experimental Study of Children, Washington, 1899.

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and situation. The Norsemen, for example, are famous as the wolves of the sea, and this evidences qualities of energy and daring, but there is no way of knowing whether or not the Russian Slavs and other brachycephals of eastern Europe would have been rovers of the sea, colonizers and empire builders had their habitat been around the Baltic and the North seas. Their history does not lack evidence of migratory capacity, while their peopling of the Siberian wilds reveals the qualities essential in the pioneers of every country. Certainly those daring Phoenician navigators who three thousand years ago sought tin in Wales were far different from Norsemen in their physical type. With the improvement of contacts the Slavs have moved to America by millions, while the little Japs, shut up for ages in their Hermit Empire, now threaten to possess themselves of the vast basin of the Pacific. The negroes of the Southern States have been attached to their native soil for generations but in the last few years have moved north by hundreds of thousands. Probably the statistician of 1930 will be able to show that the negroes are the most migrant of all American stocks. Would he be warranted in attributing this to their long heads, or their dark skins? What thus appears due to race in one place seems with equal cogency attributable to some feature of the cultural environment in another.
    It would, however, be an error to interpret the foregoing critique of the school of anthropo-sociologists as an indication that their work is here considered of no value. It was not only highly suggestive but contained many profound observations. Their emphasis on the operation of selection is of permanent importance. Every social situation operates, or is reacted to, selectively. Our criticism, is, in a word, that this school did not succeed in demonstrating that cities as wholes or urban strata as particulars operate selectively on European racial types. In view of the extraordinary mixture of anthropological elements this failure was perhaps inevitable.
    Their emphasis on race substitution is another matter of permanent value. The work of Francis Galton and Karl Pearson have made it clear that early marriage plus high fertility contributes much more rapidly to the next generation than late marriage and

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low fertility. If Pearson‘s conclusion 77 that one-eighth of those born become the progenitors of one-half the next generation is even roughly true, there can be little doubt that the quality of the population in modern industrial nations is changing. It may be changing more rapidly than is popularly supposed. The anthropo-sociologues were right in emphasizing the reversed selection set up by the sterilization of the fit in modern cities. Had they not connected this with the disappearance of a chosen race, they would have had an irrefutable case. This selection may affect the proportions of anthropological traits in the populations of western Europe and America. There seems little doubt of it. But the phenomenon is general and, so far as we know, works on the upper classes regardless of anthropological features. Where the blonds save been most numerous among the socially elect, they seem likely to become less so. It is still true as Dumont said in his trenchant study on Dépopulation et civilisation: 78 “Si les blonds dolichocephales sont éliminées graduellement, il faut se hater de dire que c‘est uniquement à raison de leur situation géographique et sociale, et non de leur race.“ It is not the brunetizing and the brachycephalization of Europe that threatens its racial future so much as the failure of its more able stocks to out-breed the less able. Even were one to admit, in purely general observational and historical grounds and for the sake of argument, that blond long-heads are more enterprising, energetic and intellectual than brunet round-heads, it would still be true that the social selection on which modern nations must fasten their attention is not that between such racial types, but that manifested by the different vitality indexes of differently endowed strains within every anthropological type.
    One may, as Ammon was sometimes inclined to do, fall back on the easy optimism of sublime faith in the beneficent working of natural selection. In that case the brachycephalization of Europe would prove the superiority of the round-heads. But natural selection only works toward or preserves an adaptation to environmental conditions. In modern social life it happens that the stimu-

    77 “Groundwork of Eugenics,“ Eugenics Laboratory Lecture Series, No. ii, 1909.
    78 Paris, 1890.

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lus of ambition sterilizes the capable while the benefits of science and humanitarianism preserve the numerous offspring of the less capable. There are grounds for supposing that this has happened more than once in the history of civilization. The periodic and rather rapid decline of cultural epochs may very probably be explained in large part by the phenomena of population decay. This is not a question, at least among European stocks, of the relative frequency of this or that physical trait, whether head-form, eye-color or nasal index, though it is not here denied that racial differences in energy and intelligence exist. It is a question rather of the over multiplication of mediocrity and inferiority in proportion to the reproduction among those superior stirps which prove most fecund in leaders and men of genius. Such a decline is followed by a slow rise of a new cultural phase which in turn may be explained in part by the regeneration of the population which the intervening period of rigorous elimination of weaker elements has brought about. These phenomena of racial change do not occur alone for they are accompanied by correlated fluctuations in social disciplines of every sort, religious, political, moral, economic. These latter disciplines are nothing other than the social selective processes or agencies envisaged by the Social Selectionists. The study of their correlations with the vital indexes of various physical types, intellectual levels and character traits is to-day the most important aspect of social biology.
    So far then as that special brand of Aryanism is concerned which based its enthusiastic dogmatism on the assumed superiority of the blond dolichocephal one must conclude with Dr. Émile Houzé, a noted Belgian anthropologist of the last generation, that, “The Aryan as an ethic type is the foundling (l‘enfant trouvé) of linguistics; anthropo-sociology has served it as an asylum.“ This particular school of social selectionists seemed to themselves to have placed the doctrine of the social superiority of the long-headed blonds among the statistically demonstrated facts of social anthropology. If they had deceived themselves only little harm would have resulted. But they greatly strengthened doctrines

    79 L‘Aryen et l‘anthroposociologie: Étude critique, Brussels, 1906, p. 73.

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upon which have been based pernicious forms of racial arrogance in Germany, England and the United States. They assisted in the inflation of Teutonic chauvinists and Pan-Germanists; they lent aid and comfort to Anglo-Saxon imperialists; they gave a sense of moral righteousness to the spirit of racial intolerance. One may say with truth that, if myth and illusion stir the human imagination and sentiments more deeply than scientific fact and thus constitute the motive powers of great historical movements there is no idée-force more powerful in our age than the scientific myth.
 
 



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Chapter 4: Teutonism
Chapter 6: Celticism and Gallicism